From academic research to industrial application
The Graphene Flagship so far has produced many exciting and valuable R&D results. One of the main obstacles for real uptake of graphene in the industry however is the lack of scalable processes for making large area, high quality layers and hetero-structures of graphene and other 2D layered materials, including functional device demo’s. Moreover, the interfaces in such structures are not well understood; this is critical as these interfaces and their stability during processing sequences will govern any device functioning and performance.
The 2D hetero-layer structure
2Dfun aims at developing a graphene/MX2/dielectric platform (MX2 = transition metal dichalcolgenides)


Manufacturing-compatible unit process steps
High-volume production compatible deposition techniques of MX2 on graphene as well as high-k dielectric layers (Al2O3, HfO2) on MX2
  - High-k dielectric growth is based on a conventional Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) process
- We will investigate two novel routes for MX2 making
- plasma-enhanced sulphurization of metal or metal oxide layers deposited by ALD
- a direct ALD process with regular metal and chalcogen precursors
Surface functionalization
Functionalization of the graphene and MX2 surfaces is needed to create active sites for the subsequent growth processes, for which we will work with Self-Assembled Monolayers as well as some novel inorganic functionalization approaches.
The resulting layers and full graphene/MX2/high-k layer structures will be thoroughly analyzed for their structural, chemical, optical and electrical characteristics.
   1. Detailed structure of 2D/2D (graphene/MX2) and 2D/3D (MX2/dielectric metal oxide) interfaces,
   2. Interface characteristics (charge transfer, energy distribution, gap state spectrum and band structure, stability).
Demo electrical devices
Demonstrate and characterize the first functional hybrid MOSFET devices made with High Volume Manufacturing compatible processes on this graphene/MX2/high-k platform